Traditional healthcare is unable to accommodate everyone’s needs due to the tremendous increase in population.Despite having excellent infrastructure, and cutting-edge technologies, medical services are not approachable or affordable to everyone. One of the goals of smart healthcare is to help users by educating them about their medical status and keeping them health-aware. Smart healthcare empowers users to self-manage some emergency situations. It provides an emphasis on improving the quality and experience of the user. Smart healthcare helps in utilizing available resources to their maximum potential. It aids remote monitoring of patients and helps in reducing the cost of the treatment for the user. It also helps medical practitioners to extend their services without any geographical barriers. With an increasing trend towards smart cities, an effective smart healthcare system assures a healthy living for its citizens.
Connected health in general refers to any digital healthcare solution that can operate remotely and is a collective term for subsets such as telemedicine and mobile-health, but with an additional component of continuous monitoring of health, emergency detection and alerting suitable individuals automatically. Connected health mainly focuses on the mission to improve the quality and efficiency of healthcare by enabling self-care and complementing it with remotecare. It has its origin in the era of telemedicine, where the users are educated about their health and are given feedback whenever required. While smart healthcare refers to solutions which can operate completely autonomously, connected
healthcare offers solutions for the users to receive feedback from clinicians. The most important classification, which redefines the economy of the smart healthcare, is the end user market. Depending upon whether the healthcare network is to be implemented for individuals or hospitals, the cost, power, and architecture varies widely.
Figure 1 shows the broad classification of the smart healthcare market, based on the services, medical devices, technologies used, applications, system management and end users. Connectivity technologies used play a vital role in expanding the applications for which the healthcare system is designed. Efficient integration of small devices through wireless technologies can help in implementing remote health monitoring through the Internet of Things (IoT) If a personalized monitoring device such as a wrist band is used, a Bluetooth module, 6LowPAN or RFID can be used to connect the device to the internet. But in a hospital scenario where a healthcare network is maintained, Wi-Fi and ground cables are required to maintain constant internet connectivity and support heavy data traffic. The medical devices used to implement the smart healthcare can be classified into on-body sensors and stationary medical devices. On-body sensors are usually bio-sensors which are attached to the human body for physiological monitoring. These sensors can be further classified into in-vitro and in-vivo sensors. In-vitro sensors are attached externally to the human body which helps in reducing the involvement of lab or hospital facilities in healthcare. In-vivo sensors are implantable devices which are placed inside the body after fulfilling the regulations and standards on sterilization.